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The production of micro-bubbles of gas in the liquid medium without any contact tank for saturation and dissolution of the gas in the liquid medium. The decompression of the high pressure gas-liquid mixture after mixing forms fine charged gas emulsion in the liquid medium (30-50 micron meter size estimated). The presence of similar charge on the extremely fine gas bubbles prevent it from coalescence and reduce its rising velocity in the liquid medium. This in turn increases the residence time in the reactor. 

As the surface area of the bubble is inversely proportional to the diameter, this increases the surface area of the gas in liquid emulsion, increasing the mass transfer co-efficient. The volumetric mass transfer co-efficient can increase 5 to 6 folds by this techniques.
As the bubble slowly rise in the liquid medium, the high surface area of the bubble transfer the gas to the surrounding liquid. The increased mass transfer of the gas to the liquid medium reduces the size/volume of the gas bubble increasing the pressure of the gas (Laplace pressure) within the gas bubble. The reducing size of the bubble increases the surface charge of the bubble increasing its Zeta potential ζ.  
The increased surface charge and its Zeta potential attract minute suspended particles to it increasing its buoyancy and lifting it to the liquid surface. Since the minute particles are smaller than the bubble size, the total suspended solids of the system reduce and the water clarity improves tremendously. This removal of fine suspended particles from the liquid medium reduces the COD and BOD of the liquid medium, requiring less chemicals and treatment steps in downstream operations.
As the bubble slowly rise and reduce in size due to mass transfer, the pressure inside the bubble increase to an extent that that it bursts. This bursting of micron size bubbles due to the increased pressure is reported to produce extreme heat, radicals and nano-bubbles. The production of radicals’ aid in oxidation and disinfection.
The extremely small sizes of the bubble make it impossible to break it by physical means due to the high energy requirements. It is therefore safe to pump such gas emulsion to the suction of high pressure pumping system without any cavitations inside of the pumps. This property makes it ideal for applications in membrane systems for:
1.   Removal of greater bulk of the suspended solids in micron size
2.   pH adjustments using carbon dioxide gas.
3.   Prevent membrane fouling by the scoring action of the gas bubbles on the membrane surface.
4.   The occasional bursting of the gas bubbles produce radicals which oxidize organics and bio fouling of the membranes.
5.   The dissolved gases can pass through the membranes, not increasing the TDS of the reject. This is very critical in zero discharge membrane systems where the TDS of reject can build up due to chemical additions.
The system finds applications in:
1.   Gas liquid mixing systems
2.   Activated Sludge process for increased DO levels.
3.   Floatation of fine suspended solids and for solids recovery.
4.   Oily waste water treatment.
5.   Membrane pre-treatment & membrane fouling control.
6.   Washing of salads and other fresh produce eaten raw.
7.   Increase yield of fresh produces by sub surface drip lines and in hydroponic farming.
8.   Ballast water treatment for ocean going vessels.